Elm, American

Ulmus americana
A large tree to 100' tall and with a trunk up to 4' in diameter. The main trunk typically forks into arching limbs with drooping end branches. The dark bark is deeply furrowed and somewhat flaking. The 2-6" elliptical, sharp-toothed leaves have long, pointed tips and the rounded asymmetrical base typical of elms. The upper surface may be very rough. The flowers appear in stalk-less clusters along the twigs, each cluster emerging from brownish-red scales. The individual 1/8" greenish-red flowers are on long thin stalks and are flattened and cup-shaped. The 7-8 stamens protrude and have white filaments and brownish anthers. The 1/4-12" fruit is a flattened seed surrounded by an oval, hairy-edged wing with 2 thin, curved tips that converge or cross. Flowers March, April; fruits May, June. Dutch elm disease has destroyed many American elms.

Differentiated from Slippery elm (U. rubra) by the longer-stalked flower and fruit and by the very hairy margins of the wing surrounding the seed.