Fern 21 Plants that have broad leaves and reproduce by spores, not flowers and seeds. Fern allies, the Horsetails and Clubmosses, also reproduce by spores but the leaves are scale- or awl-like.
Buckwheat 20 Petal-less flowers are small and in spikes, racemes or heads. The stem joints are swollen and surrounded by a papery sheath.
Sedge 15 Small flowers are in spikes in the leaf axils. The solid stems are triangular in cross section. Swampy areas.
Willow 14 Trees or shrubs with simple, toothed leaves and tiny flowers in catkins. Included the willows proper and the poplars and aspens.
Maple 11 Trees or shrubs with opposite, long-stalked, palmately lobed leaves. Flowers asre 5-part and some are radially symmetrical, while others are flattened and cup-shaped and have little obvious symmetry. The fruit is a pair of flat, long-winged, 1-seeded keys.
Beech 11 Trees with simple leaves and flowers in catkins. The fruit is a 1 or more seeded nut. Beeches, chestnuts, oaks.
Pine 10 Evergreen trees or shrubs with needle-like leaves and winged seeds in cones.
Birch 9 Trees or shrubs with simple, alternate, toothed leaves and flowers in catkins. Birches, hornbeams, hop-hornbeam, alders and hazelnuts.
Nettle 7 Tiny white or green petal-less flowers in spikes from the leaf axils. Leaves are usually opposite, long stemmed and toothed. The sap is watery. Some plants have stingers.
Goosefoot 5 Small, greenish, nearly spherical flowers are in spikes or clusters from the leaf axils.
Walnut 5 Trees with alternate pinnately compound leaves and tiny flowers in catkins. Fruit is a nut with a hard shell enclosed in a husk.
Elm 4 Trees with simple alternate leaves and small inconspicuous flowers in clusters along the twigs. Fruit is a nutlet surrounded by a papery wing.
Mulberry 3 Trees with alternat, toothed &/or lobed leaves. The tiny flowers are in clusters and the fruit is a tight cluster of small drupes ( a berry with a hard central stone).
Clubmoss 3 Small evergreen perennials with pine needle-like or flat cedar-like leaves. There are no flowers or seeds, spores are often in upright “cones”.
Horsetail 3 Plant has a cone-like head on a jointed stem with a toothed sheath at each joint. No true flowers.
Wintergreen 3 Indian pipe. See also 5-petal section of Radial symmetry group.
Arum/Calla 3
Rush 2 The small greenish or whitish scale-like flowers are in heads, spikes or loose clusters. The narrow leaves may be cylindrical or flat and the base sheathes the stem.
Hemp 2 Creeping or twining vines with palmately lobed, toothed leaves. Flowers in cone-shaped clusters (hops).
Plantain 2 Tiny petal-less flowers in heads on slender leafless stalks. Stamens prominent. Leaves are basal.
Amaranth 2 Weedy plants with small, greenish, petal-less flowers in spikes, racemes or heads.
Cattail 2 Tiny, tightly packed, petal-less and sepal-less flowers in brown cylindrical heads on tall slender stalks. Long, slender, flat leaves. Found in swamps and other wet places.
Witch-hazel 2 Sweetgum. See 4-petal section of Radial symmetry group.
Cypress 1 Trees or shrubs with flattened and scaly or hollow needle-like “leaves” Fruit is a small cone in the “cedars” and a berry in the junipers.
Sycamore 1 Trees with long-stalked palmately lobed leaves, peeling bark and tiny flowers and nutlets in long-stalked balls.
Bur-Reed 1 Marsh plants with narrow, reed-like leaves and tiny, petal-less flowers in balls along the stem.
Grass 1 Tiny inconspicuous petal-less and sepal-less flowers in spikelets arranged in spikes, tassels, or heads. Jointed stems are hollow. Leaves are alternate, the leaf base sheathes the stem.