VALERIAN FAMILY VALERIANACEAE Flower

The stem branches fork several times before ending in clusters of very small radially symmetrical flowers. The tubular corolla has 5 spreading lobes, and the stamens and style protrude. The opposite sessile leaves may be deeply divided. There are only a few species in the 2 genera in our area.

VERVAIN FAMILY VERBENACEAE Flower

The small, radially symmetrical, 5-petalled flowers are in long, thin, pencil-like, terminal and upper leaf axil spikes. Only a few flowers bloom at a time. The opposite, simple leaves are toothed and on short stems or are sessile.

The teak tree is a member of this family, but there are no tree species in our area.

VIOLET FAMILY VIOLACEAE Flower

Violets are low plants of spring and summer. The bilaterally symmetrical flowers have 5 petals, the lowest usually being broadest and extending back in a spur. The inner face of each lateral petal is often bearded, and the inner surface of the lowest petal may be as well. The alternate, long stemmed leaves are usually simple but are occasionally deeply lobed.