Small perennial evergreen plants with crowded pine needle-like or flattened cedar-like leaves. Most species have horizontal stems spreading widely above or below ground and giving rise to vertical stems. There are no flowers or seeds, but enormous numbers of tiny spores are produced, often in upright cones. The most rapid form of propagation is by rooting of the horizontal stems. (Spores take several years to develop into plants.)
The ground pines (Lycopodium genus) have pine needle-like leaves, the ground cedars (Diphasiastrum genus) have flattened, cedar-like leaves, and Huperzia genus plants are in clumps, have no horizontal stems, and do not have cones. Clubmosses and their relatives the horsetails and ferns are small descendants of once huge plants that lived in the Paleozoic Era hundreds of millions of years ago, populating vast forests that laid down beds of organic debris that were geologically transformed into today''s coal seams. (The now dominant flowering plants were then non-existent.)
This family contains trees.
This family contains flowers.